How do we reason logically?
Continuing on from the previous post, what are the laws that govern reason? How do we reason logically?
A very basic example of a logical argument is the Syllogism:
Syllogism: A + B = C
- A is the Major premise.
- B is the Minor premise.
- C is the conclusion.
In deductive reasoning, in order for the argument to be considered logical, it must be considered both valid and sound.
In order for the reasoning to be valid, the conclusion must follow from the premises.
In order for the reasoning to be sound, it must be valid, and the premises must be true.
If the reasoning is valid and sound, the conclusion must be true.
Example 1 (most famous example of a syllogism):
Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
A + B = C
I don’t claim to be an expert logician, (far from it) but I always strive to be logical in my thinking.
Because if we’re not willing to abide by the laws of logic, we might as well be playing a board game where each player can decide to follow a different set of rules. It’d be so arbitrary and unfair. Like the way that children will make rules up and add them as they go to give themselves advantages.
In order to play fair, we must put aside our biases and reason logically.
Here’s a great resource for beginners to learn how to reason logically (from somebody much smarter than me on the topic): https://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/series/critical-reasoning-beginners